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The cost of overweight and obesity in Australia

The cost of overweight and obesity in Australi

The cost of overweight and obesity in Australia

  1. For those with diabetes, total direct costs were $2,353 per person with normal weight, $3,263 per person with overweight, and $3,131 per person with obesity. Additional expenditure as government subsidies ranged from $5,649 per person with normal weight and no diabetes to $8,085 per person with overweight and diabetes
  2. Rates of overweight and obesity in Australia have risen over recent decades, with nearly 2 in 3 adults, and 1 in 4 children considered overweight or obese in 2014-15 (ABS 2015). This report presents a current, comprehensive picture of overweight and obesity in Australia, and discusses population health approaches targeting this major risk factor
  3. In 2015, 8.4% of the total burden of disease in Australia was due to overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity was the leading risk factor contributing to non-fatal burden (living with disease) (AIHW 2019). See Burden of disease

However, without additional and increased investment in well designed obesity interventions there will be 50 per cent more obese people and the cumulative, marginal economic costs of obesity in Australia will reach $87.7 billion by 2025, not including the impact on the quality of life of the obese, their families and carers See Overweight and obesity among Australian children and adolescents for more information on this age group.. Adults. In 2017-18, 2 in 3 (67%) of Australians aged 18 and over were overweight or obese. Put another way, approximately 12.5 million adults were overweight or obese In 2017-18, two thirds (67.0%) of Australian adults were overweight or obese (12.5 million people), an increase from 63.4% in 2014-15. This change was driven by the increase in the proportion of adults categorised as obese, which increased from 27.9% to 31.3

The additional annual medical costs due to overweight and obesity among 6 to 13 year olds is about $43 million (in 2015 AUD). This is driven by a higher utilisation of general practitioner and specialist doctors. The results suggest that the economic consequences of childhood obesity are much larger than previously estimated According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics the total annual cost of obesity in 2008 including health system costs, loss of productivity and carers' costs was estimated at around $58 billion Obesity is an increasingly serious issue for many nations across the world, including Australia. More than a quarter of Australia's adult population is obese, one of the highest prevalence rates in the world. Obesity leads to higher health and quality of life risks for individuals and major additional economic costs to society

The Select Committee into the obesity epidemic in Australia was established on 16 May 2018 to inquire into and report on the following matters: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Australia and changes in these rates over time; The causes of the rise in overweight and obesity in Australia

OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY COSTS AUSTRALIA OVER $21 BILLION PER YEAR 28 Feb 2010 In 2005, overweight and obese Australian adults cost the Australian economy $21 billion in direct health care and direct non-health care costs, plus an additional $35.6 billion in government subsidies, according to a study published in the Medical Journal of Australia Results Expenditure attributable to overweight and obesity increased by A$45million, from 4.7% to 5.4% of total acute public in-patient expenditure. This increase accounted for 7.8% of the A$583million total expenditure growth, whereas the largest component of total growth (62.4%) was a real increase in the average cost per separation According to VU's Australian Health Tracker, obesity rates across Australia are hugely dependent on where people live, and vary between regions by as much as 300 per cent Being overweight at age 4-5 is associated with significantly higher pharmaceutical and medical care costs. The results imply that for all children aged 4 and 5 in 2004-2005, those who were overweight had a combined 5‐year Medicare bill that was AUD$9.8 million higher than that of normal weight children

(PDF) The Cost of Overweight and Obesity in Australi

Objective: To estimate the costs of health care and lost productivity attributable to overweight and obesity in New Zealand (NZ) in 2006. Methods: A prevalence-based approach to costing was used in which costs were calculated for all cases of disease in the year 2006. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated based on the relative risks obtained from large cohort studies and the. costs of overweight and obesity are already very significant with the total annual cost of obesity in Australia in 2011-2012 has been estimated to be $8.6 billion, including $3.8 billion in direct costs and $4.8 billion in indirect costs.27 Using a measure that includes loss in wellbeing, estimates reach aroun The costs attributable to obesity and overweight were the largest for type 2 diabetes at $238.7m or 38%. Hypertension accounted for the second largest share of obesity and overweight related costs at $167m or 27%. Of the cancers, colorectal cancer had the highest level of expenditure for overweight and obesity at $7m or 1% A picture of overweight and obesity in Australia, 2017, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Obesity and overweight, 2018, Health, World Health Organization. Weighing the cost of obesity: a case for action, 2015, PwC Australia. Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2018, World Health Organization The report Weighing in: Australia's growing obesity epidemic reveals some alarming new obesity statistics:. Two thirds (67%) of Australian adults are either overweight or living with obesity; There are 900,000 more people living with obesity today (not including those who are overweight), compared to just 3 years ag

Compared to healthy weight children, overweight and obesity among six to 13 year-olds were found to cause an additional $43.2 million in annual non-hospital costs incurred by Medicare. The additional annual cost per child caused by obesity is $103 per year and an overweight child is $63 per year Diabetes and cost of obesity. In May 2008, Diabetes Australia, the national body for diabetes awareness and prevention, told the House of Representatives that the cost of obesity on the country's health system in 2005 was an estimated A$25 billion (US$20 billion), In August 2008, Diabetes Australia's estimation more than doubled to $58 billion (US$46 billion), this time taking into account not. Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns in Australia. These conditions can result in considerable personal burden and lowered quality of life, in addition to substantial costs to health care systems. This chapter examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Australian males Introduction. Excess body weight is associated with the risk of diabetes 1-3.In Australia, the latest National Health Survey estimated that 11.2 million adults were overweight or obese and 1.2 million adults had diabetes in 2014-2015 4; a rise from 9.0 million and 0.9 million adults, respectively, in 2011-2012 5.The financial burden of these chronic conditions has been reported. Our estimates suggest that overweight and obesity in children aged 6 to 13 cost the Australian government approximately $43.2 million annually (in 2015 AUD) over and above the costs for children of normal weight for non-hospital health care services

The Cost of Obesity. New research published in 2010 shows the total direct cost of overweight and obesity in Australia is $21 billion a year, which is double previous estimates 5. For the first time, the cost of overweight adults in Australia was calculated; costing $6.5 billion a year Studies that contained estimates of attributable annual health service costs due to obesity reported estimates ranging from $1.5 billion to $4.6 billion. 13, 24, 25, 31, 33, 34 The diseases with the highest costs to the healthcare system related to overweight and obesity were generally osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The growing cost of obesity in 2008 . Diabetes Australia is the national peak body for diabetes in Australia providing a single, powerful, collective voice for people living with diabetes, their families and carers. Diabetes . Australia works in partnership with diabetes health professionals and educators, researcher

Overweight - how much does it cost and what to do about it

In 2006, 62 per cent of Australian men and 45 per cent of women are overweight or obese - up from 52 and 37 per cent 10 years ago, according to the annual National Health Survey, put out last week. In Australia: about two thirds of adults are overweight or obese; almost one quarter of 5 to 17 year olds are overweight or obese; Being overweight or obese means you are at a higher risk of getting a related illness, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis and some types of cancer In particular, weight and obesity treatments have increased the cost of healthcare. In America, it is estimated that obesity is adding $190 billion annually to the price of healthcare Australian adults will be overweight or obese. Negative growth: the future of obesity in Australia Research highlights 10 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 BMI (kg/m2) Distribution (%) Distribution (%) Distribution of BMI among males 1980 2000 10 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 BMI (kg/m2) Distribution of BMI among females 1980 200 Overweight and obesity are commonly defined in adults by BMI, which compares height and weight. The following explains the BMI groupings: <18.5 kg/m 2 - underweight 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2 - healthy 25.0 - 29.9 kg/m 2 - overweight 30.0 kg/m 2 and above - obese BMI is a tool that health professionals may use to assess health

aged 20-39 years with severe obesity will experience the largest YLL, relative to healthy weight. More needs to be done in Australia to establish a coherent, sustained, cost-effective strategy to prevent overweight and obesity, particularly for men in early adulthood. Introduction Globally, obesity and severe obesity is a major public healt A recent report released by the WA Department of Health found that if Western Australian population levels of overweight and obesity continue to climb at current levels, costs to the WA health system will increase by 80 per cent in the decade between 2016 and 2026, from $338.7 million to $610.1 million

Fears for Australia’s obese toddlers, parents warned on

In 2008, the economic cost of obesity to Australia was estimated to be $58.2 billion; with a cost of $19 billion in NSW. Classifying overweight and obesity [3] : Body Mass Index (BMI) is the main measure used in international obesity guidelines and is relied on by WHO as a population measure for obesity RESULTS: Among Australian children under 10 years of age, 5-6% were underweight, 11-18% overweight and 5-6% obese. Excess costs with low and high BMI became evident from age 4-5 years, with normal weight accruing the least, obesity the most, and underweight and overweight intermediate costs The excess costs of overweight were estimated to be between $5451 and $16131 and the obesity-related costs between $8942 52 and $1586.53 The suggestions of Durden et al were significantly higher for both overweight ($1738) and obesity ($1857).30 By contrast, other studies did not use an excess-cost approach but calculated the total yearly. In 2018, 70% of Western Australian adults aged 16 years and over were classified as overweight (38.1%) or obese (31.9%), according to their BMI. This is a significant increase since 2002 and is mainly due to an increase in the number of people with obesity (up from 21.3%) Obesity in Australia: financial impacts and cost benefits of intervention March 2010 • The direct and indirect costs of obesity and obesity-related illnesses in 2008/09 were estimated to be $37.7 billion. • Loss in productivity due to obesity through absenteeism, presenteeism and premature death is estimated to be $6.4 billion a year

The cost of overweight and obesity in Australia The

The cost of overweight and obesity in Australia. Med J Aust 2010; 192: 260-264. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar 4. Finucane MM, Stevens GA. Overweight and obesity in Australia: the 1999-2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Med J Aust 2003; 178 : 427-432. Google Schola Overweight and obesity in adults. Overweight and obesity can increase a person's risk of a range of conditions and health problems. There are many factors that have contributed to population increases in overweight and obesity. If a person is overweight or obese, even small amounts of weight loss can have a range of health benefits

Risk factors for overweight and obesity: results of the 2001 National Health Survey. Public Health 121: 603-613; Thompson, D. & Wolf, AM. 2001. The medical care cost burden of obesity. Obesity Reviews. 2: 189-197; AIHW. 2003. Are all Australians gaining weight? Differentials in overweight and obesity among adults 1989-90 to 2001. Bulletin. 11: 1-1 OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY ABSTRACT Overweight and obesity pose a major risk to long term health by increasing the risk of chronic illnesses. In 2005, 7.4 million people aged 18 years and over (54% of the adult population) were classified as overweight or obese, an increase from 5.4 million adults (45% of the adult population) in 1995 Obesity in Australia. Two-thirds of Australian adults are now overweight (35.6%) or obese (31.3%) 1, with levels of obesity having risen steadily in recent decades. 2 The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising in Australian adults, driven mainly by increased rates of obesity. 1 (For more detail, see Trends.) Obesity impacts. Excess weight and obesity have a negative effect on many. Rates of overweight and obesity also vary by remoteness areas. In 2014-15, 61.1% of adults living in Major Cities were overweight or obese compared with 69.2% in Inner Regional Australia and 69.2% also in Outer Regional and Remote Australia. This pattern was consistent with that of 2011-12

The Article by Seamus Kent and colleagues1 presents an analysis of the overall inpatient costs in women in England aged 50-64 years with different body-mass index (BMI) values on admission in 2006 who were taking part in the Million Women Study.2 Clearly the lowest hospital costs and the lowest rate of hospital admission were in women with BMIs between 20 kg/m2 and 22·5 kg/m2, which is. Overweight and obesity trends. After adjusting for age, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian adults rose from 57.2% in 1995 to 66.4% in 2017-18. The trend was mainly driven by a rise in the prevalence of obese adults, from 19.1% to 30.8%

The cost of overweight and obesity in Australia

Objective Arguments to fund obesity prevention have often focused on the growing hospital costs of associated diseases. However, the relative contribution of overweight and obesity to public hospital expenditure growth is not well understood. This paper examines the effect of overweight and obesity on acute public hospital in-patient expenditure in South Australia over time compared with other. Indirect costs of obesity: a review of the current literature. Obes Rev. 2008; 9:489-500. 5. Colditz GW, Wang, YC. Economic costs of obesity. In: Hu F, Obesity Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2008. 6. Dor AF, Langwith C, Tan E. A heavy burden: The individual costs of being overweight and obese in the United States. The.

Obesity bigger cost for Britain than war and terror

Direct financial costs to the community were calculated in 2005 to be as much as $21.0 billion annually; when government subsidies and welfare were also considered, the total increased to $56.6 billion per year.8 If the cost of overweight and obesity in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is approximated at 2.8% of the population2. O verweight and obesity have been recognised as an important public health problem in Australia. Thirty-five percent of Australian women aged 25-35 years are overweight or obese.1 This has important implications for the delivery of obstetric care. It is well recognised that maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of maternal, peripartum and neonatal complications.2 Maternal.

Overweight and obesity represents a major concern as excess body weight and lack of physical activity is associated with many serious chronic health conditions. To date, the focus has largely been on obesity as a health issue and little has been done in response to obesity as a workplace concern Weighing it up: Obesity in Australia . 4 . Recommendation 1 . The Committee recommends that the Minister for Health and Ageing commission economic modelling in order to establish the cost implications of obesity to Australia and the cost-benefits of various interventions. Agreed in part The cost-effectiveness and consumer acceptability of taxation strategies to reduce rates of overweight and obesity among children in Australia: study protocol. Comans TA(1), Whitty JA, Hills AP, Kendall E, Turkstra E, Gordon LG, Byrnes JM, Scuffham PA Obesity not only has significant health and social impacts, but also considerable economic impacts. In 2008, the total annual cost of obesity for both children and adults in Australia, including health system costs, productivity and carers costs, was estimated to be around $58 billion Management of Adult Overweight and Obesity (OBE) (2020) Newly Updated! The guideline describes the critical decision points in the Management of Adult Overweight and Obesity and provides clear and comprehensive evidence based recommendations incorporating current information and practices for practitioners throughout the DoD and VA Health Care.

Obesity is a major public health issue in the developed world [] and the rates of childhood obesity are increasing.Australian data from the National Health Survey indicate that the percentages of obesity in 5-12 year-old Australian children rose from 5% in 1995 to 7.8% in 2011-12 [2, 3] and 25% of 5-12 year-olds were classified as overweight or obese [2, 3] The exact cost of obesity is difficult to determine. In 2011-12, a conservative estimate placed the cost of obesity at $8.6 billion. [11] An older, but a more expansive estimate of overweight and obesity, including both direct and indirect costs indicated the annual cost of obesity in Australia at $56.6 billion. [12 The Select Committee into the obesity epidemic in Australia, established on 16 May 2018 to inquire into and report on 26 November 2018, on the following matters: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Australia and changes in these rates over time; The causes of the rise in overweight and obesity in Australia In 1980 just 10% of Australian adults were obese; by 2012 this figure had risen to 25%, among the highest in the world. The food industry lobby and their friends in government would have us. In 2008, the total annual cost of obesity to Australia, including health system costs, loss of productivity costs and carers' costs, was estimated at around $58 billion. (Endnote 2) While genetics may play a role in a person's propensity to become overweight or obese, the fundamental cause is an imbalance between energy consumed and energy.

Batch, J. & Baur, L., 'Management and prevention of obesity and its complications in children and adolescents', in Medical Journal of Australia, 2005, vol. 183, no. 3, pp. 130-134. More information here.; Obesity and overweight [online], World Health Organization. More information here. 'Other diet-related risk factors and physical inactivity' [online], in The World Health Report. overweight or obesity.1 One in four Western Australian children were overweight or obese,2 placing them at an increased risk of obesity in adulthood.3, 4 Adult obesity in Western Australia (WA) has risen steadily from 21 per cent in 2002 to 32 per cent in 2018.1 Nationally, the number of adults living with very severe obesity has increased b Lehnert T, Sonntag D, Konnopka A, et al. Economic costs of overweight and obesity. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;27:105-15. Lang T, Rayner G, Rayner M, et al. Policy councils on food, nutrition and physical activity: the UK as a case study. Public Health Nutr 2005;8:11-9

A picture of overweight and obesity in Australia, Data

Objective: To evaluate obesity-related costs and body mass index (BMI) as a cost predictor among privately insured employees by industry.. Methods: Individuals with/without obesity were identified using the Optum Health Reporting and Insights employer claims database (January, 2010 to March, 2017). Direct/indirect costs were reported per-patient-per-year (PPPY) The World Health Organization estimates that more than one billion people are overweight and of these, 300 million are obese. 1 In Australia, about 20% of the population is obese (approximately 2.

The cost of diabetes and obesity in Australi

New research published today in the Medical Journal of Australia (MJA) shows the total direct cost of overweight and obesity in Australia is $21 billion a year, double previous estimates.. The research, conducted by The University of Sydney's Boden Institute of Obesity Nutrition and Exercise, isolates for the first time the cost of overweight people in Australia putting it at $6.5 billion a. Results: The annual total direct cost ranged from $1,998 per person with normal weight to $2,501 per person with obesity in participants without diabetes. For those with diabetes, total direct costs were $2,353 per person with normal weight, $3,263 per person with overweight, and $3,131 per person with obesity Data from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study indicate that the total direct cost for overweight and obesity in 2005 was $21 billion ($6.5 billion for overweight and $14.5 billion for obesity). The same study estimated indirect costs of $35.6 billion per year, resulting in an overall total annual cost of $56.6 billion. The cost of obesity in Australia was estimated to be $8.6 billion in 2011-12, comprising $3.8 billion in direct costs and $4.8 billion in indirect costs[4]. If no further action is taken to slow obesity rates in Australia, the cost of obesity over the next 10 years to 2025 is estimated to total $87.7 billion[4] The economic impact of overweight and obesity include 'direct costs' such as the cost of medical treatment and 'indirect costs' such as presenteeism. To date, much of what we know about the economic impact of overweight and obesity come from studies in developed countries, yet we know that the challenges we face are global and far-reaching

This report provides an overview of overweight and obesity

In Australia, national obesity prevalence data have been reported previously.5, 6 In the 1995 National Nutrition Survey, 45% of men and 29% of women were found to be overweight, and a further 18% of men and women were classified as obese.6. The recent Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) yielded a large population-based. Using microsimulation modelling, this book analyses the burden of obesity and overweight in 52 countries (including OECD, European Union and G20 countries), showing how overweight reduces life expectancy, increases healthcare costs, decreases workers' productivity and lowers GDP 3.1. To make the economic case for investing in obesity prevention and treatment, its impact needs to be quantified 76 3.2. Overweight and related diseases will reduce life expectancy in OECD countries by 2.7 years 81 3.3. Overweight will account for over 8% of total health expenditure in OECD countries 84 3.4 Overweight and obesity in children continues to be a major public health concern worldwide [1, 2].Overweight children and adolescents are likely to become overweight adults [3, 4].Excess weight gain during childhood and adolescence is associated with increased risk of numerous noncommunicable diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and some cancers) throughout the life. In the four studies which presented separate estimates for direct and indirect costs of overweight and obesity, the indirect costs were higher, accounting for between 54% and 59% of the estimated.

Overweight and obesity - Australian Institute of Health

66 percent of adult Australian males are overweight or obese. Access Economics estimates the total financial cost to Australia of obesity rose from $3.7 billion in 2005 to $8.2 billion in 2008 Previous studies in other settings have shown that overweight and obesity are associated with YLL, loss of QALYs and increased costs.9 14 28 For example, when the impact of obesity on QALYs and costs was examined in the USA over a 10-year period,29 researchers found that being obese led to an average of 1.2 QALYs lost per person and increased. Government in Medicare costs due to childhood overweight and obesity (Black et al. 2018). Childhood overweight and obesity and related factors also feature prominently as child health issues among the Australian public. The first Australian Child Health Poll in 2015 found Australians considered the top 4 biggest health issues to be: 1 The discounted total costs per female were US$619 (95% CI: 616 to 622), US$1298 (95% CI: 1290 to 1306) and US$2057 (95% CI: 2043 to 2071) for healthy weight, overweight and obesity, respectively. QALYs and costs were lower in males.Conclusion Overweight and obesity have substantial health and economic impacts, hence the urgent need for cost.

Australia is facing a growing obesity crisis, with 67% of adults now overweight or obese. How much is this really costing us A total 32.4 per cent of Queenslanders are now classified as obese and a further 33.5 per cent are overweight, according to South Australia's Torrens University, which compiled the figures using. The prevalence of overweight (BMI > 25 Kg/m 2) and obesity (BMI > 30 Kg/m 2) is rising internationally [].As BMI increases, so too does the prevalence of co-morbid conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and some cancers [].Rising medical costs are a matter for concern globally, and many attempts have been made to estimate the costs associated with the increasing prevalence. While overweight and obesity are complex conditions with multiple causes, there is a substantial association between consumption of SSBs and long-term weight gain. 23 Obesity is a risk factor for chronic disease including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some cancers. 23 Advocates for an SSB tax in Australia agree that the measure should be. attributable to overweight and obesity (17% for overweight; 24% for obesity). • The total health care cost of Type 2 diabetes in 1993-94 in Australia was $216.7 million of which $89.1 million (41%) can be attributed to overweight and obesity

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Overweight and obesity: an interactive insight, Prevalence

This year's edition of WOF's World Obesity Atlas reviews the evidence of the relationship between overweight, obesity, and COVID-19 and finds that in countries where overweight and obesity prevalence is less than 50 percent, the mortality rate from COVID-19 is one-tenth of the level observed in countries with an overweight and obesity. Latest official government snapshot shows country South Australia has the highest proportion of overweight and obese Australians at 73.3 per cent closely followed by western NSW (71 per cent) Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. A picture of overweight and obesity in Australia 2017. Cat. no. PHE 216. Canberra: AIHW, 2017. Search PubMed; Keegan R, Middleton G, Henderson H, Girling M. Auditing the socio-environmental determinants of motivation towards physical activity or sedentariness in work-aged adults: A qualitative study Obesity is a key advocacy priority to improve public health. Declared an epidemic by the World Health Organization in 1997, a pandemic in 2011, and described as part of a Global Syndemic in 2019 along with undernutrition and climate change, affecting most people in every country and region worldwide. Most Australians are living with overweight or obesity, which has significant public health. Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. It is defined as a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of his height in meters (kg/m2). The WHO definition is: a BMI greater than or equal to 25 is overweight. a BMI greater than or equal to 30 is obesity

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Overweight and obesity - Australian Bureau of Statistic

The most recent measured data on overweight and obesity prevalence in Australian adults comes from the 2014/15 National Health Survey . In 2015, 63.4% of Australian adults were living with overweight or obesity, and just under half of these were living with obesity. Men had a greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than women Overweight and obesity incur a significant cost to the Australian economy, with estimates suggesting that in 2005 overweight and obesity cost $56.6 billion. 8. Obese children under the age of 5 years were more likely to be hospitalised than non-obese children, and to cost the economy more than 1.5 times the cost of a non-obese child. In Australia s Health 2006, the AIHW reports a similar prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian adults across the states and territories, according to analysis it undertook on figures derived from the NHS. Obesity rates ranged from 17.0% in Victoria to 19.6% in South Australia, and overweight rates from 34.2% in Queensland to 36.3% in. In 2005, overweight and obese Australian adults cost the Australian economy $21 billion in direct health care and direct non-health care costs, plus an additional $35.6 billion in government. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555 2001: Health Survey for England 2001. 2002: Berg C, Rosengeren A, Aires N, Lappas G, Toren K, Thelle D and Lissner L. (2005). Trends in overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2002 in Goteborg, West Sweden

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Katherine recorded the second highest rate of obesity in Australia at 43.3 per cent. Of five NT locations included in the national data, Darwin was the only one to record a lower-than-average. Introduction. There is evidence that overweight status, unhealthy diet and low physical activity levels contribute to population risk for non-communicable disease [].In Australia, the direct costs of overweight and obesity have been estimated at AUD21 billion annually [].In 2007-08, 68% of Australian men and 55% of women were classified as overweight or obese [] In addition to the direct costs, overweight and obesity have indirect costs in the form of lost productivity (i.e. increased absenteeism and presenteeism). In 2011-12, the indirect cost of obesity was estimated to be AUD 4.8 billion to the Australian economy . Absenteeism in the Australian workplace has risen by 7% since 2010

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